Contents Vol. XX

Introduction Brigadier General P. D. Hogan Page 3
The defence forces and the United Nations Lieutenant General Gerry McMahon Page 5
Ireland and UN peacekeeping Liam Cosgrave Page 8

The development of UN peacekeeping concepts since 1945: the UN perspective

Michael Couton Page 9

UN observer missions in the Middle East and Central America

Colm Doyle Page 32
The Congo (ONUC): the political perspective Conor Cruise O'Brien Page 37
The Congo (ONUC): the military perspective Sean MKeown Page 43
UNFICYP: command and staff experiences P. D. Hogan Page 48
Today's UNFICYP Michael Minehane Page 53
At- Tiri, or Bosnia avoided: the Irish in UNIFIL, 1978-95

Robert Fisk

Page 59
UNIFIL: unit experience David Taylor Page 71
Peacekeeping in Europe : the Balkans Cedric Thornberry Page 81
The political parameters of European cooperation in peacekeeping Patrick Keatinge Page 91
The United Nations and humanitarian operations Neill Wright Page 99

Defence-forces involvement with UN agencies and non-governmental organisations in Africa

Captain D. O'Brien Page 106

Blaze away and stand to it boys': Captain Jack Donovan and the Irish Brigade at Fredericksburg (Illustrated)

Kevin O'Brien Page 121
Between the lines, 1861   Page 130
Ireland 's Protestant militia 1715-76: a military assessment Neal Garnham Page 131
Colonel John Michelburne (Illustrated) Piers Wauchope Page 137
The Batavian Republic and Ireland , 1797 (Illustrated) C.J.M. Kramers Page 145

' Hibernia officina militum': Irish recruitment to the British regular army, 1660-1815

Terence Denman Page 148

Was Ireland a factor in German foreign policy during the July crisis 1914?

Andreas Roth Page 167
Teaching the world to fly': R.R. Smith-Barry Richard Hawkins Page 174
Irish casualties in the first world war (Illustrated) Patrick Casey Page 193

The imperial service ofWilliam Aylmer , 1800-14 (Illustrated)

Richard John Aylmer Page 207
Morale in the 16th (Irish) Division, 1916-18 Lyon Speer Lemisko Page 217
The army and Royal Navy in Ireland : some statistics Anthony Kineessla Page 234
Ships of the Irish Normans John de Courcy Irelan d Page 241

The diary of Second Lieutenant A.V.G. Killingley, Easter Week, 1916 (Illustrated)

B.P. McCann Page 246
A sword from the battle of Orra (Illustrated) Hector McDonnell Page 253
''The goodness of pikes'   Page 262
The British Military Evacuation Anthony Kinsella Page 275
The Civil War from the pro-Treaty Perspective Michael Hopkinson Page 287
The Irish Civil War 1922-1923: an anti-Treaty Perspectiv Brian P. Murphy Page 293

Organisation and Development of the pro- Treaty Forces, 1922-1924

Patrick Long Page 308
The Special Infantry Force   Page 331
The Pettigo - Belleek Triangle Incident (Illustrated) Anthony Kinsella Page 3467
External Intelligence and the Civil War Euan O'Halpin Page 367
Women and the Civil War Ann Matthews Page 379
The Aftermath of the Civil War   Page 387